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Republic of Poland         POLAND.GIF (1228 bytes) 

Capitol: Warsaw  ( Warszawa 1, 600, 600 )

Polish Cities - A Virtual  Tour.. One the most beautiful and positively informative sites about Poland and Poles on the Web  ( "Poland Always Close To You" )

*General Information about Poland and It's People at Home and Scattered Around the World

 *The information on this site is subject to disclaimer  disclaimer

"Poland gained its independence in 1918 only to be overrun by Germany and the Soviet Union in World War II.  It became a Soviet satellite country following the war, but one that was comparatively tolerant and progressive. Labor turmoil in 1980 led to the formation of the independent trade union "Solidarity" that over time became a political force and by 1990 had swept parliamentary elections and the presidency. A "shock therapy" program during the early 1990s enabled the country to transform its economy into one of the most robust in Central Europe, boosting hopes for acceptance to the EU.  Poland joined the NATO alliance in 1999.  "

--- CIA World Factbook

Poland is a  member in the European Union

"Poland needs Europe - but Europe also needs Poland!" 
-- Her Majesty;  Queen Elizabeth II

Warsaw Uprising 1.VIII 1944 An assertion of sovereignty and hope.
Warsaw Rising

From the Site of the Month By:   Jagoda Urban-Klaehn
Chernobyl Accident & Chernobyl's Polish Connection

If you have an ounce of Polish Blood in you or even if you don't, then (in my humble opinion), this is one of the Best English Spoken Polish Culture Sites on the Web

During W.W.II, (World War 2) approximately 6 million Poles were killed, and  about 2.5 million were deported to Germany for forced  labor. More than 3 million Jews  were killed in death camps like those at Oswiecim (Auschwitz), Treblinka, and Majdanek. 

Please Read: Polish Citizens - Hitler's First Target:

Polish Catholics rejoiced all over the world at the elevation of a Pole to the papacy in Rome. In October 1978, the Bishop of Krakow, Cardinal Karol Wojtyla, became Pope John Paul II, head of the Roman Catholic Church.

  Was it another 1920 "miracle"?
On 9/ 12/1989 the Sejm approved a new Prime Minister ( Mr. Mazowiecki ) and his cabinet. For the first time in more than 40 years, Poland had a government led by non­communists. 

Poland - Polska - Polen - Pole- Polak- Polish - Polen

Poland is America's Best Friend

External Links to: Pictures from Poland

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Using this link
to Poland:
You Will Read About Her Glorious Past and Her Present-Day Resources. Moreover, See Pictures of Poland, Map of Poland and Hear a Part of the National Anthem.  

Polish Traces all over the world
  (in pictures)

Warsaw in Pictures

Spectacular Pictures are brought to you by:
Please, see Mrs. Wrotniak's Favorites

External Links to: Polish History:

Abridged history of Poland

One of the most informative sites
on the Web

Look for BellaOnline: Most informative Polish Site in English

Another Very Informative Polish Sites: PolishWorld

The Polish Studies Online Newsletter

The Sarmation Review
The Sarmation Review
Two Saddest Nations
Thadeusz Kosciuszko
Casimir Pulaski

"Poland was the only country in German-occupied Europe where an attempt to help Jews was punishable by death. Nevertheless a surpassingly large number of Poles showed superhuman courage by saving some 60,000 Jews. "
  --M.K. Dziewanowski in  
Jews in Poland
A Documentary History

Links to: Polish   Language Courses

Basic Polish Language Course:

Basic Polish Language Course:

Polish Language Courses in Krakow
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A Learners Polish-English Dictionary by Oscar E Swan from:
Polish Language
Site University
of Pittsburgh

Poles Around the World
Estimates total the number of Poles living abroad to be some 15 million or more.   External Links to:

Poles In America as early a 1607

Poles in America

Polish in America

Poles in Australia

Poles in Great Britain

Poles in Canada

Contribution of Poles to Canadian Society

Great Men and Women
External Links to: Polish Born, of Polish Descent or Connected to Poland

His Holiness
Pope John Paul II 

Famous Poles - from New Poland - The Polish Web

Famous Poles and Polish Americans
List of Polish Composers

USC Polish Music Center -- Polish Composers
Polish Composers

Polish Contributors to World Sciences

Science in Poland

Polish Scientists in the European Union
Warsaw Voice

Nobel Prize Laureates
Polish-origin Nobel Prize Laureates/

Compendia of Famous or Notable Poles

by InfoPoland

National Polish - American Sports Hall of Fame and Museum www.polish


Location: Central Europe, east of Germany, 

Map Reference: Europe 

Area: total: 312,685 sq km 
land: 304,465 sq km 
water: 8,220 sq km 

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Mexico 

Land boundaries: total: 2,788 km 
border countries: Belarus 407 km, Czech Republic 658 km, Germany 456 km, Lithuania 91 km, Russia (Kaliningrad Oblast) 206 km, Slovakia 444 km, Ukraine 526 km 

Coastline: 491 km 

Climate: temperate with cold, cloudy, moderately severe winters with frequent precipitation; mild summers with frequent showers and thundershowers 

Terrain:  mostly flat plain; mountains along southern border 

Elevation Low:  Raczki Elblaskie -2 m,  Elevation High: Rysy 2,499 m 

Natural Resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt 

Population: 38,646,023 (July 2000 est.) 

The population of 38.6 million which gives Poland 29 place in the world and 8 place in Europe. Urban population, ( 860 cities and towns) comprises some 62 % of the total population in 1995.

Nationality: noun: Pole(s) 
adjective: Polish 

Ethnic groups: Polish 97.6%, German 1.3%, Ukrainian 0.6%, Byelorussian 0.5% (1990 est.) 

Religions: Roman Catholic 95% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, and other 5% 

Languages: Polish 

Literacy: total population: 99% 

Life Expectancy:  72.5 years

Government type: republic 

Independence: 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed) 

National holiday: Constitution Day, 3 May (1791); Independence Day, November 11 (1918) 

Constitution: 16 October 1997; adopted by the National Assembly
on 2 April 1997; passed by national referendum 23 May 1997 

Currency: 1 zloty (Zl) = 100 groszy    --World Factbook

Economy: Poland has steadfastly pursued a policy of economic liberalization throughout the 1990s and today stands out as a success story among transition economies. Even so, much remains to be done. The privatization of small and medium state-owned companies and a liberal law on establishing new firms has encouraged the development of the private business sector, but legal and bureaucratic obstacles alongside persistent corruption are hampering its further development. Poland's agricultural sector remains handicapped by structural problems, surplus labor, inefficient small farms, and lack of investment. Restructuring and privatization of "sensitive sectors" (e.g., coal, steel, railroads, and energy), while recently initiated, have stalled due to a lack of political will on the part of the government. Structural reforms in health care, education, the pension system, and state administration have resulted in larger than expected fiscal pressures. Further progress in public finance depends mainly on privatization of Poland's remaining state sector, the reduction of state employment, and an overhaul of the tax code to incorporate the growing gray economy and farmers most of whom pay no tax. The government's determination to enter the EU has shaped most aspects of its economic policy and new legislation; in June 2003, 77% of the voters approved membership, now scheduled for May 2004. Improving Poland's export competitiveness and containing the internal budget deficit are top priorities. Due to political uncertainty, the zloty has recently depreciated in relation to the euro and the dollar while currencies of the other euro-zone aspirants have been appreciating. GDP per capita equals that of the 3 Baltic states.

GDP: purchasing power parity - $373.2 billion (2002 est.)

GDP - composition by sector:  agriculture: 3.8%, industry: 35%, services: 61.2%

Labor force: 17.6 million (2000 est.)

Labor force - by occupation : industry  22.1%, agriculture 27.5%, services 50.4% (1999)

Budget: Revenues:  $49.6 billion expenditures: $52.3 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)

Industries:    machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles
--World Factbook   Disclaimer

Polish Economy Between January and March 2004

Please Read: ' The Two Saddest Nations on Earth:' Poles, Jews and Memory

Also, See:  Sarmatian Review Back Issues


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Pictures courtesy of:

Polish World at the click of your mouse:
Portals to the World Resources Selected by the Library of Congress Subject Experts.


National Weather Service
Internet Weather Source  Poland and the World


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Polish-American Heritage: Read about the Wieliczka Salt Mine ( a 17th Century St. Anthony's Chapel inside the Wieliczka Salt Mines near Krakow, Poland. )

A Little of Slavic  & Polish History

Slav History and the Origins of Slavs
"Philologists and archaeologists theorize that the Slavs settled very early in the Carpathian Mountains or in the area of present-day Belarus. By A.D. 600, they had split linguistically into southern, western, and eastern branches. The East Slavs settled along the Dnepr River in what is now Ukraine; then they spread northward to the northern Volga River valley, east of modern-day Moscow, and westward to the basins of the northern Dnestr and the western Bug rivers, in present-day Moldova and southern Ukraine. "

The Origins of Poland 
" According to Polish myth, the Slavic nations trace their ancestry to three brothers who parted in the forests of Eastern Europe, each moving in a different direction to found a family of distinct but related peoples. Fanciful elements aside, this tale accurately describes the westward migration and gradual differentiation of the early West Slavic tribes following the collapse of the Roman Empire. About twenty such tribes formed small states between A.D. 800 and 960. One of these tribes, the Polanie or Poliane ("people of the plain"), settled in the flatlands that eventually formed the heart of Poland, lending their name to the country. Over time the modern Poles emerged as the largest of the West Slavic groupings, establishing themselves to the east of the Germanic regions of Europe with their ethnographic cousins, the Czechs and Slovaks, to the south. 
"In spite of convincing fragmentary evidence of prior political and social organization, national custom identifies the starting date of Polish history as 966, when Prince Mieszko (r. 963-92) accepted Christianity in the name of the people he ruled. In return, Poland received acknowledgment as a separate principality owing some degree of tribute to the German Empire (later officially known as the Holy Roman Empire--see Glossary). Under Otto I, the German Empire was an expansionist force to the West in the mid-tenth century. Mieszko accepted baptism directly from Rome in preference to conversion by the German church and subsequent annexation of Poland by the German Empire. This strategy inaugurated the intimate connection between the Polish national identity and Roman Catholicism that became a prominent theme in the history of the Poles. "

"In the first centuries of its existence, the Polish nation was led by a series of strong rulers who converted the Poles to Christendom, created a strong Central European state, and integrated Poland into European culture. Formidable foreign enemies and internal fragmentation eroded this initial structure in the thirteenth century, but consolidation in the 1300s laid the base for the dominant Polish Kingdom that was to follow. "

The Polish-Lithuanian Union
"Poland's unlikely partnership with the adjoining Grand Duchy of Lithuania, Europe's last heathen state, provided an immediate remedy to the political and military dilemma caused by the end of the Piast Dynasty. At the end of the fourteenth century, Lithuania was a warlike political unit with dominion over enormous stretches of present-day Belarus and Ukraine. Putting aside their previous hostility, Poland and Lithuania saw that they shared common enemies, most notably the Teutonic Knights; this situation was the direct incentive for the Union of Krewo in 1385. The compact hinged on the marriage of the Polish queen Jadwiga to Jagiello, who became king of Poland under the name Wladyslaw Jagiello. In return, the new monarch accepted baptism in the name of his people, agreed to confederate Lithuania with Poland, and took the name Wladyslaw II. In 1387 the bishopric of Wilno was established to convert Wladyslaw's subjects to Roman Catholicism. (Eastern Orthodoxy predominated in some parts of Lithuania.) From a military standpoint, Poland received protection from the Mongols and Tatars, while Lithuania received aid in its long struggle against the Teutonic Knights."

"The Polish-Lithuanian alliance exerted a profound influence on the history of Eastern Europe (see fig. 3). Poland and Lithuania would maintain joint statehood for more than 400 years, and over the first three centuries of that span the "Commonwealth of Two Nations" ranked as one of the leading powers of the continent. "

"The association produced prompt benefits in 1410 when the forces of Poland-Lithuania defeated the Teutonic Knights in battle at Grunwald (Tannenberg), at last seizing the upper hand in the long struggle with the renegade crusaders. The new Polish Lithuanian dynasty, called "Jagiellon" after its founder, continued to augment its holdings during the following decades."

--The Library of Congress/Country Studies  

/Dictionary Online

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