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Slavs & Balts


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Capitol:  Ljubljana, ( Population = 280,000)

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External Links to: Pictures from Russia

Using this link to Slovenian Culture Center, You Shall See:
Beautiful Pictures of Slovenia
Slovenian Landmark Images, Slovenian Catholic Mission and More


These Pictures are the Property of the European Commission
Spectacular Pictures are brought to you by:

Pictures of the Cave Castle

External Links to: Slovenian History from Webster's Online Dictionary:

One of the most informative sites on the Web: History of   Slovenian People - Ancient and Modern

Another Very Informative Site: Slovenians, Origin of Slovenians, History,   Slovenians in Europe, in Austria-Hungry,  in Italy, in the German Army, in the Kingdom of Yugoslavia and More www.wordiq.com/definition

Another Very Informative Site: Portals to the World

Facts About Slovenia
Foreign Policy
Slovenian National Insignia

Slovenia - The Story of Viniculture in Slovenia

External Links to: Slovenian Language Courses

Basic Slovenian Alphabet www.ijs.si/slo-chset.html

Basic Slovenian Language Course: 


Slovenian Language Site University of Pittsburgh

Slovenian Reference Grammar
Slovenian Language Site University of Pittsburgh


Slovenians Around the World
External Links to:

Slovenians in America

Early History of Slovenian National Home

Slovenians in Canada

The Canadian Slovenians Historical Society

Slovenians Abroad:
Australia, Germany, Canada, & The United States www3.sympatico.ca

External Links to: Slovenian Born or of Slovenian Descent - Great Men and Women:

Famous Slovenians

Famous People

For Tourist to Slovenia

January 13, 2005

COUNTRY DESCRIPTION: Slovenia operates under a parliamentary democracy. In May 2004, Slovenia became a member of the European Union. Slovenia is a mountainous country, half of which is covered by forests, with 29 miles of coastline along the Adriatic Sea. Tourist facilities are widely available throughout the country. For additional information read the 
Department of State's
Background Notes on Slovenia: http://www.state.gov/
r/pa/ei/bgn/ 3407.htm


"The Slovene lands were part of the Holy Roman Empire and Austria until 1918 when the Slovenes joined the Serbs and Croats in forming a new nation, renamed Yugoslavia in 1929. After World War II, Slovenia became a republic of the renewed Yugoslavia, which though Communist, distanced itself from Moscow's rule. Dissatisfied with the exercise of power of the majority Serbs, the Slovenes succeeded in establishing their independence in 1991. Historical ties to Western Europe, a strong economy, and a stable democracy made Slovenia a leading candidate for future membership in the EU and NATO. "

-- CIA World Factbook

Slovenia joined the NATO alliance in 2004.

Slovenia is a member of the European Union since May of 2004.

Location: Southeastern Europe, eastern Alps bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Austria and Croatia

Map references:Europe

Area: total: 20,273 sq km
water: 122 sq km
land: 20,151 sq km

Area - comparative: slightly smaller than New Jersey

Land boundaries:  total:1,334 k
border countries: Austria 330 km, Croatia 670 km, Italy 232 km, Hungary 102 km

Coastline: 46.6 km

Climate: Mediterranean climate on the coast, continental climate with mild to hot summers and cold winters in the plateaus and valleys to the east

Terrain: a short coastal strip on the Adriatic, an alpine mountain region adjacent to Italy, mixed mountain and valleys with numerous rivers to the east>

Natural Resources: lignite coal, lead, zinc, mercury, uranium, silver

Industries:  ferrous metallurgy and rolling mill products, aluminum reduction and rolled products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

Agricultural Products: potatoes, hops, wheat, sugar beets, corn, grapes; cattle, sheep, poultry

Population: 1,927,593 (July 2000 est.)

Nationality: noun: Slovene(s)
adjective: Slovenian

Ethnic groups: Slovene 88%, Croat 3%, Serb 2%, Bosniak 1%, Yugoslav 0.6%, Hungarian 0.4%, other 5% (1991)

Religions: Roman Catholic 70.8% (including Uniate 2%), Lutheran 1%, Muslim 1%, atheist 4.3%, other 22.9%

Languages: Slovenian 91%, Serbo-Croatian 6%, other 3%

Literacy: 99%

Government type: parliamentary democratic republic

Currency: 1 tolar (SlT) = 100 stotins

-- CIA World Factbook

Economy:    Slovenia, with its historical ties to Western Europe, enjoys a GDP per capita substantially higher than that of the other transitioning economies of Central Europe. In March 2004, Slovenia became the first transition country to graduate from borrower status to donor partner at the World Bank. Privatization of the economy proceeded at an accelerated pace in 2002-3, and the budget deficit dropped from 3.0% of GDP in 2002 to 1.6% in 2003. Despite the economic slowdown in Europe in 2001-03, Slovenia maintained 3% growth. Structural reforms to improve the business environment allow for greater foreign participation in Slovenia's economy and help to lower unemployment. Further measures to curb inflation are also needed. Corruption and the high degree of coordination between government, business, and central bank policy are issues of concern in the run-up to Slovenia's scheduled 1 May 2004 accession to the European Union.     --
CIA World Factbook

GDP: purchasing power parity- $36.89 billion (2003 est.)

Labor force: 876,100 (2003)  

Labor force-by occupation agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%

Budget: revenues: $9.9 billion  expenditures: $10.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2003 est.)

Industries:  ferrous metallurgy and aluminum products, lead and zinc smelting, electronics (including military electronics), trucks, electric power equipment, wood products, textiles, chemicals, machine tools

CIA World Factbook



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Map of Europe    Map of the Balkans

National Weather Service
Internet Weather Source Slovenia and the World

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Slovenia News http://rss.topix.net/world/slovenia

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A Little of  Slavic and Slovenian History 

Origin of the Slavs 
"Little is known of  the origins of  Slavs. Philologists and archaeologists theorize that the Slavs settled very early in the Carpathian Mountains or in the area of present-day Belarus. By A.D. 600, they had split linguistically into southern, western, and eastern branches. The East Slavs settled along the Dnepr River in what is now Ukraine; then they spread northward to the northern Volga River valley, east of modern-day Moscow, and westward to the basins of the northern Dnestr and the western Bug rivers, in present-day Moldova and southern Ukraine. "

-- The Library of Congress  Country Studies 

Early History of Slovenes "The Slovenes, a Slavic people, migrated southwestward across present-day Romania in about the sixth century A.D., and settled in the Julian Alps. They apparently enjoyed broad autonomy in the seventh century, after escaping Avar domination. The Franks overran the Slovenes in the late eighth century; during the rule of the Frankish king Charlemagne, German nobles began enserfing the Slovenes and German missionaries baptized them in the Latin rite. Emperor Otto I incorporated most of the Slovenian lands into the duchy of Carantania in 952; later rulers split the duchy into Carinthia, Carniola, and Styria (see fig. 2). In 1278 the Slovenian lands fell to the Austrian Habsburgs, who controlled them until 1918. "

"Throughout the postwar period, Slovenia was by far the richest per capita, the most ethnically homogeneous, and the most open to political experimentation of the Yugoslav republics. In centuries of close contact with Austria, Italy, and France, it had absorbed much from Western political and economic thought (see The Slovenes , ch. 1). Preservation of hard-won economic advantages was a primary consideration in Slovenia's political posture, especially after the 1974 Constitution prescribed new federal budgeting procedures. Slovenes had always objected to federal levies used to support underdeveloped economies in other republics. By the mid-1980s, Slovenes were highly critical of federal (Serbian-dominated) financial policy, especially when the new procedures failed to reduce their payments for support of a deteriorating economy in Kosovo, and when rising inflation hurt their economy (see Structure of the Economy , ch. 3).

The combination of Western intellectual influence and increasing pressure for independent solution of economic problems led to formation of many official and unofficial noncommunist political groups in Slovenia, which became the center of a major political controversy in the late 1980s. Several politically significant acts by official and unofficial Slovenian groups posed a clear threat that the republic's substantial industrial, financial, and agricultural resources might be withdrawn from the federation. While loudly opposing the Serbian thrust for centralization and dominance of Kosovo, the Slovenes liberalized their own political system by adding multiple-candidate elections, open media discussion of all issues, and noncommunist political groups. In 1989 the Slovenian League of Communists endorsed multiparty elections, and in 1990 it renamed itself the Party of Democratic Renewal.

Although party president Milan Kucan had led a substantial bloc of moderates as late as 1989, the momentum of new party formation and the failure of compromise with Serbia brought controversial change that threatened to carry the Slovenes farther from the center of the federation. Among amendments added to the Slovenian constitution in late 1989 were provisions limiting the emergency intervention power of the Yugoslav government in Slovenia, and affirming Slovenia's right to secede from the federation if "national self-determination" were not guaranteed in the next round of constitutional changes. Those amendments were viewed as an alarming precedent by nearly all non-Slovenian political groups, and they were declared at variance with the national constitution by an advisory decision of the Constitutional Court of Yugoslavia a few months after passage.

As economic success and political reform progressed at home, the Slovenes increasingly perceived Serbian nationalism as a major danger. For Slovenes, Serbian nationalism threatened to reinstate external control of economic resources and political processes. At the time of the Fourteenth Party Congress in early 1990, the federal government and the LCY were split between proSerbian and pro-Slovenian factions. Slovenian party officials condemned Serbian oppression in Kosovo and the Serbian demand for a one man-one vote national decision--making system, which would allow Serbia to dominate because of its large population. In 1989 the Front for Independent Slovenia appeared with demands for total independence. Slovenia was the first Yugoslav republic ever to hold multiparty elections, in early 1990. At the time of the elections, the Slovenian Social Democratic Alliance was one of only two Yugoslav noncommunist parties to have expanded past republican borders. That group was part of a coalition called Demos, which easily won the first (parliamentary) phase of elections, defeating Kucan's former communists with a platform that included secession from Yugoslavia. In the presidential runoff, the popular reformist Kucan won, making him the first freely elected communist head of government in Eastern Europe, and creating a mixed republican government in Slovenia.

--The Library of Congress/Country Studies

Line Reference Sources:
The Library of Congress Country Studies
The CIA World Factbook 2002 and The Library of Congress



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